Construction materials are all the components or bodies, regardless of their type, composition, or shape, that go into a construction project to meet the very minimum standards necessary for that purpose. They must, for instance, adhere to technical requirements for things like mechanical resistance, wear, absorption, and resistance to compression. The majority of building materials are created from readily accessible elements like sand, clay, or stone.
They are materials that are employed in structures almost exactly as they are in nature, that is, without enduring any alterations to their chemical or physical makeup, even when their original shape has been changed.
For instance, crushed stone is a naturally occurring substance whose form has changed as a result of being broken apart.
They are materials that have undergone physical and chemical transformations before being employed in building, such as cement, steel, etc.
Following regulations, qualities, or requirements that restrict their choice, natural and artificial building materials must be employed in the works according to their physical and chemical properties.
Construction materials properties
The various uses of construction materials will be revealed in the sections that follow. From the most consistent to the least consistent, from the toughest to the most delicate. The so-called stone materials are where we begin.
- The density, compressive strength, and tensile strength of construction materials are a few of their most crucial characteristics.
- Building materials are generally considered to have a medium density. Compared to metals like steel or copper, they are lighter.
- Compressive strength: Some materials, like glass, are more resistant to compression than steel than stone and ceramics.
- A house's columns need to be resilient to compressive loads. Steel is a material that can withstand this pressure, but it is heavy and expensive. Despite being a weaker material, concrete is lighter and less expensive.
- Tensile strength: In many applications, how a material responds to pressures that have a tendency to stretch it is crucial. In general, traction resistance in stone materials is not extremely high. They are substantially more resilient to compressive pressures than tensile stresses. However, rolled steel sections, which are employed in the construction of buildings, have high tensile stress resistance.